For some time we « escaped » from this gas by building ultra-high pipes.
And how much gas, peat, etc. burns? As a result, about 5 billion tons of carbon dioxide are currently released into the atmosphere. This carbon dioxide is the result of the so-called civilized man. It is all of abiogenic origin, and living nature, as it turns out, is not always able to cope with it.
Therefore, it is not surprising that in the regions of our planet with highly developed industry (USA, Japan, Central Europe) already the level of abiogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere far exceeds its assimilation by plants in the process of photosynthesis. And what will it be like when all the regions on the planet reach such a degree of « civilization » and « scientific and technological progress »? .. Who will call it progress? Where will we get oxygen? And how to calculate, based on what has been said, « highly civilized » with « low-civilized » when the former will breathe at the expense of the latter? This is no longer fiction. This is the reality of today’s international scale!
Acid threat. The third reason for the increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is the extreme acidification of nature. In this regard, this issue is not often raised. So let’s dwell on it in more detail. At once I will note almost one hundred percent is also a factor of productive activity of people. Thanks to us in Nature there is an extremely intense inflow into water, atmosphere and soil of various acids (mineral and organic). Immediately, these acids enter into a neutralization reaction with substances of alkaline nature with the formation of the corresponding salts.
The main factor that neutralizes acids in Nature are salts of carbonic acid (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and others). At the same time, carbon dioxide must be released into the atmosphere. Thus, when a kilogram of sulfuric acid interacts with a kilogram of limestone (calcium salt of carbon dioxide), approximately 200 liters of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere and 1.76 kilograms of calcium sulfate (ordinary gypsum) are formed.
Now let’s determine the amount of abiogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere – given that each year in the fresh waters of the planet and the oceans get about 300-500 million tons of sulfur, which produces one to one and a half billion tons of sulfuric acid. This means that about half a billion tons of carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere due to the decomposition of carbonate salts. So how long will there be coral reefs and islands in rivers, lakes, seas and oceans that consist almost entirely of limestone? And how will various mollusks, turtles and other organisms, shells and skeletons of which mainly consist of limestone, feel?
To this I will add: every year almost 100 million tons of sulfuric acid fall on the surface of our planet in the form of acid rain. Approximately half of this amount is released into the environment and nitric acid. And there are hydrochloric, phosphoric and various organic acids (humanity is also not very worried about their neutralization). Countless billions of liters of CO2 fly into the atmosphere again. Where do these acids come from?
The main reason for the transition of such a mass of sulfur from the soil into water and air (where they are usually converted into sulfuric acid) – human activity. First of all, it is the burning of coal and oil products. On average, coal contains one percent sulfur, and when burned, it almost completely turns into a gaseous form in the form of oxides – mainly sulfur dioxide (CO2). For some time we « escaped » from this gas by building ultra-high pipes. But this is self-deception, because these pipes only avert trouble, but do not remove it as such. In the air, by contact with water, sulfur dioxide is converted mainly into sulfuric and sulfuric acids.
Thus, when burning a kilogram of coal, about 30 grams of sulfuric acid falls to the ground through the atmosphere. Imagine how much of it is formed, for example, at Trypillya GRES, when 10-12 thousand tons of coal are burned there per day. And how many such DRES, and blast furnaces and so on. Let me remind you that in a year mankind produces and uses about 4 billion tons of coal and lignite.
It is also easy to calculate how much sulfuric acid is formed during the combustion of oil, fuel oil and gasoline. These gases actively migrate across the planet before falling to earth with rain. Therefore, it is not difficult to guess that we, as well as our neighbors, are not indifferent to who manages.
The chain closes. Extremely intense flow of acids from the earth’s layers into the water (surface and underground) occurs as a result of mining and smelting, in the process of erosion of the coastal strip of the seas and oceans, wind erosion, industrial effluents and livestock complexes and more. Approximately 130 million tons of sulfuric acid are produced annually by the chemical and petrochemical industries. This acid, after all, must also be neutralized. And all this again and again replenishes the content of abiogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Nitrogen oxides also play a similar role to CO2 (mainly N2O, whose molecules absorb heat almost two hundred times more efficiently than CO2). They are formed mainly by soil microflora, especially with significant application of nitrogen fertilizers to the soil.
Transport is also one of the main sources of nitrogen oxide emissions. On average, each car emits about 10 grams of nitric oxide per kilometer. And they are formed mainly in the combustion chambers of engines due to the interaction of nitrogen and oxygen in the air, which in normal conditions does not happen Once in the atmosphere, these oxides are converted into nitric and nitrous acids, which also fall in the form of acid rain millions of tons.
And the salts of these acids are the so-called nitrates and nitrites, the negative consequences of increasing the concentration of which in water, soil and food are more or less known to the public. As in the case of sulfuric acid, for every kilogram of nitric or nitric acid from the planet’s surface about 180 liters of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere.
To this I will add: in relatively clean regions of the planet in rainwater, almost 80 percent of the sum of all acids is accounted for by carbon dioxide. The remaining 20 percent are other acids. Thus, during the rain, the atmosphere seems to be washed away by CO2. In this case, carbon dioxide in the composition of rainwater returns to the surface of the planet and is included in the biological cycle.
However, the ratio of acids in rainwater over industrial centers and around them is somewhat different:
60 percent – sulfuric acid, 30 – nitric, 5 – hydrochloric, 2 – carbon dioxide, 3 – other acids.
Note that carbon dioxide is almost insoluble in « acidic » rainwater, so it remains in the upper layers of the air. As a result, a much larger part of it is not included in the biological cycle, which causes its accumulation in the atmosphere.
Another global cause of this phenomenon is the gradual decrease in the solubility of carbon dioxide in the waters of the oceans. The fact is that the solubility of CO2 in water increases as its temperature decreases. Thus, in winter the ocean (as well as seas, lakes, rivers) seems to inhale carbon dioxide from the air, and in summer it gives off into the atmosphere. It also promotes the biological cycle of carbon dioxide. Since warming has already begun on the planet, a certain part of carbon dioxide can not pass from the atmosphere into the solution and remains in it, causing an increase in its content. The latter causes a further increase in atmospheric temperature, and so there is a closed vicious ring.
To this should be added – as a result of our activities with you (discharge into the bottom layers of the seas of coastal cities and chemicals with river waters, deep explosions, etc.) much of the deep water, which is very rich in hydrogen sulfide, reaches the sea surface. Not only is this hydrogen sulfide itself one of the most powerful poisons and it destroys all living things, inhibiting photosynthesis in general, it – in the presence of oxygen – is also converted into sulfuric acid with all its consequences.
So, the chain closes and not in our favor with you. Nature has already reached a state where it is barely able to fix our « great deeds » on its own. The consequences of this are already being felt everywhere.
Or always enjoy clear water? Here are some facts, but first let me introduce non-specialists to the method of characterizing the acidity of water and other solutions.
Thus, in nature, all solutions are divided into acidic, neutral and alkaline. For a specific expression of the degree of acidity or alkalinity use a special indicator, which is determined by the pH symbol. Neutral solutions have a pH of 7.0. All solutions with a value of less than 7.0 are acidic, and the smaller this value (up to 1.0), the stronger the acidity. 3 on the other hand, all solutions whose values are higher than 7.0 are alkaline. The strongest alkali has a pH of 14.
And now some facts: the normal pH of water in lakes, ponds and rivers is 7.5 – 8.0, sea water – 8 0-8.2 (pH of human blood – 7.4). Therefore, normally reservoirs have alkaline characteristics. But the pH of rainwater should be about 5.6. This acidification is caused by acids dissolved in it, primarily carbon dioxide. Once on Earth, it immediately enters a biological cycle or chemical reactions, as a result of which water becomes neutral. When nitrogen oxides of nitrogen, etc., appear in the atmosphere, this value drops sharply.
It has been established that rains have been observed in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions in recent years, the pH of which has dropped to 2.4 (it is almost like table vinegar). In the zone of industrial Europe, as well as around St. Petersburg, Kyiv, Kazan, the pH of rainwater sometimes reaches 3.3-4.8. In the eastern United States, more than a hundred lakes in the late 1970s and early 1980s had a water pH of 5.0. These lakes have become almost dead. In 1952, smog over London had a pH of 1.6. It is believed that this caused illness and death of about four thousand inhabitants.
I think these examples are enough. But a few more words about how such acidification of waters and soils affects living organisms. In short, this https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ effect is negative. Thus, when the pH drops to 7.0 in water, the concentration of soluble calcium decreases. This already has a negative effect on the development of fish eggs. At pH 6.6, mollusks die, at 6.0 – shrimp and caviar. At pH 5.5 and below in the water almost all the fauna dies. Moreover, this death is caused not so much by acidification of water, as by poisoning of organisms due to nwaste from bottom sediments in soluble forms of heavy metals (aluminum, lead, mercury, cadmium, tin, nickel, beryllium and others).